2N Datasheet, 2N PDF, 2N Data sheet, 2N manual, 2N pdf, 2N, datenblatt, Electronics 2N, alldatasheet, free, datasheet. 2N PNP Germanium transistor by Texas Instruments,Download Central Semiconductor 2n 2N Datasheet PDF Download – PNP Germantum Transistor, 2N data sheet.

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Equivalência de 2N

Articles Top Articles Search resources. Welcome to our site! Electro Datasjeet is an online community with overmembers who enjoy talking about and building electronic circuits, projects and gadgets. To participate you need to register.

2N Datasheet, Equivalent, Cross Reference Search. Transistor Catalog

Click here to register now. For a better experience, please enable JavaScript in your browser before proceeding. TheNewGuy Member Aug 15, I have a bag full of transistors like this one: The transistors have no markings on them!? That’s what that little square tag on the transistor is for.

Hero Banned Aug 16, The BC is obsolete, where do you get them from? TheNewGuy Member Aug 16, The transistors I have now, have that shape and no tag.

I’ll take a picture of it if you guys want. I got a bag of electrical components from a relative of mine, when he heard that I had a project going so he gave it to me. I’m building an amplifier with an LM IC. And half of the entire bag are these transistors. I thought because I had so many, maby someone could tell me where I could put them to good use? Or if I could use them in my next projects. Perhaps you should get your eyes tested then.

2N 데이터시트(PDF) – New Jersey Semi-Conductor Products, Inc.

Here’s a close-up with the tag circled in red. There are no markings on it though. Is it a BC?

Could it just be a standard transistor? You could use the diode check function of a DMM Meter check of a transistor: Bob Scott New Member Aug 16, I have some transistors like that. Circa vintage, Germanium, TO-5 case with ceramic bottom, springy gold over steel leads, and obsolete decades ago.

I would not use them for anything.

Tag is always the emitter, base is always in the middle. The old metal cans are easier to pinout than the TO mess. Generally germaniums don’t have the tag, but if they are germanium they are collectable. People like to use them to build exact reproductions of old guitar effects units etc. I like germanium transistors because they have a lower on-voltage they can work from ridiculously low voltages which is handy for single cell AA circuits.

Brevor Member Aug 16, Ask the person who gave them to you, If he doesn’t know what they are then just throw them away! Transistors are cheap and these are probably not what you need for your project anyway. They are obsolete, but they should still work. On the other hand, they have somewhat different characteristics from silicon transistors. When silicon transistors became available at low cost, most of us put our germanium transistors into the drawer or waste bin.

The leakage has a temperature coefficient that is a problem even at moderate temperatures. Silicon is nominally 0.

This isn’t really a problem, it’s just different. As mentioned, some special circuits use this feature. Storage temperature of 2N is limited to C!!! Economy germanium transistors were 25V, while economy silicon transistors are V.

germanium pnp electronics

Specials were made for RF, but they were expensive. Cheap silicon transistors are usually MHz. You might look up 2N and 2N to see the characteristics of popular mid’s germanium transistors. The best way to identify a datssheet is by using a multimeter.

Put the multimeter on check mode. Check on the internet the transistor having the similar resistance. Although there are various transistors datsaheet the same specs but it might be helpful. EN0 Member Aug 27, Yes, make sure you have the Vbe drop. You must log in or register to reply here. Replacing a 4 pin leaded inductor with a 2 pin Started by gkmaia Yesterday at Potentiometer Questions Started by norbss Yesterday at Started by fastline Yesterday at 8: Just saying hello Started by MichaelaJoy Yesterday at 6: This site uses cookies to help personalise content, tailor your experience and to keep you logged in if you register.

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The great Swedish writer Harry Martinson published his masterpiece, Aniara, during the height of the Cold War – right after the Soviet Union. Aniara: An Epic Science Fiction Poem [Harry Martinson] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This is the paperback edition translated from the. When Swedish poet and writer Harry Martinson was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature in “for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos”.

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When Swedish poet and writer Harry Martinson was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature in “for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos”the decision was controversial, to say the least. Any Nobel prize to a Swedish recipient is of course automatically suspect. If you pick persons in the world at random, you can only expect to find one Swedish-speaking person in the group. And there are more than 6, languages in the world. Great talent can be found even in a small population. And England’s population was just million in the age of Shakespeare and Newton.

What really matters seems to be the level of cultural activity in a country rather than gross numbers.

You have to wonder how many unsung geniuses around the world are being lost or overlooked even today, due to a lack of education, challenges, and opportunities. The Swedish Academy strives to strike a balance that reflects the quantity and quality of literary achievements in different regions of the world, and within each region.

An impossible task, to be sure. How could a small group of part-time readers ever hope to cover all of world literature? And besides, something is always lost in aniaara. There was an additional ground for criticism, however. Both Martinson and his aniaea Eyvind Johnson were members of the Academy.

Martinson, who was a very sensitive person, was deeply offended at insinuations that he had been awarded the prize for reasons other than merit. Subsequent attacks by Swedish left-wing authors accused him of being out of touch with a new generation of political activists less prone to “sweet resignation”. He sank into a deep depression and finally committed suicide in My mother enjoyed literature and tried to instill the same interest in me.

This was not too difficult when it came to the Swedish classics from the 19th and early 20th centuries, but contemporary Swedish writers did not excite me. But she found a way to overcome my resistance. InMartinson published a collection of poetry: Although it wasn’t exactly the kind of science fiction I was used to reading, mrtinson was interesting enough, with its theme and its inventive, playful language.

InMartinson published a complete volume of poems, Aniarawhich was an expanded version of the Doris and Mima cycle. I received it as a present shortly after it appeared.

By now, I was a little older and more mature and could appreciate it better. The story line is simple enough. A future war is raging on the Earth, and people are fleeing to Mars. One of the space ships, Aniara, carries 8, emigrants.

The ship encounters an asteroid and has to make an evasive manoeuvre. This puts it on a hyperbolic trajectory out of the solar system, with no hope of return. The book describes the attempts of the emigrants to cope with their fate: A central role is played by the ship’s computer, the Mima, which is not just intellectually superior to any human – it also harbors deep emotions and dies from grief when it witnesses the Earth’s destruction.

There are no children. The last passenger dies after some 25 years. The ship is destined to travel for another 15, years before reaching the vicinity of another star.

Aniara: An Epic Science Fiction Poem

Martinson memorably compares the spaceship to “a bubble in the glass of God’s spirit”referring to the glacial movement of bubbles in glass, understood as a liquid with very high viscosity. I do not intend to describe the book in detail. It is very familiar to every educated Swede, and to non-Swedes it is out of reach due hharry the martinsson barrier.

True, it has been translated into many languages, but in my opinion no translation can do justice to Martinson’s wonderfully creative use of the Swedish language.

And even when a semantic translation is possible, how do you convey the nuances of sound and rythm?

Most beautiful among beautiful glimpses is seen the glimmer of Karelia, as a waterglint among the trees, as a lightened summer water, in the June-light time when an evening hardly anizra time to get dark before the wooden-flute-clear cuckoo shouts to sweet Aino. Here, the difficulty is compounded by the lack of experience of most foreigners of the Nordic summer, and of all the emotions and nostalgia that the short summer nights evoke in Nordic people.

Some details that I particularly enjoyed are the description of the superhuman computer Mima this was inremember! That the Mima had invented half herself. A female clerk says: Martinson was widely acclaimed in the s and s, a “golden boy” in the new martinon of authors, thanks to his novels and poetry, enriched with his gift for metaphor, which captured the Swedish infatuation with Nature. He had a gift for improvisation similar to that of a good jazz musician. He had a difficult childhood and youth.

In English – Harry Martinson-sällskapet

His father died when he was six, and his mother deserted him the following year. This may have contributed to his need for approval and acknowledgement, and explain his deep depression later in life, culminating in suicide, when he faced rejection from “cultural workers” and reduced popularity among the general public, due to hardy zeitgeist. He was raised in foster homes.

At age sixteen he became a sailor, roaming the seas for the next seven years. Ashore, he was something of a drifter, doing part-time work and augmenting his meagre income with earnings from selling poems. The main message of Aniara”my child” as Martinson called it, is the need to take care of Mother Earth.

Aniara is intended as a warning to mankind, urging us to accept responsibility and guilt for our collective sins.

It was inspired by the events of WW II and by news of the hydrogen bomb in His spiritual testament is this: Mercy grows on the foundations of life. Aniara – Harry Martinson. Aniara was turned into an opera in A late picture of Martinson.

Last edited or checked June 6, Fixed broken links May 30, Things that surprise me.


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VFX-SD Music Production Synthesizer – Ensoniq – Encyclotronic

The VFX is the first all-digital vfx-sdd created by Ensoniq. It can combine up to 6 waveforms in a single patch, resulting in some complex layered sounds.

Its sample ROM includes a set of transwaves that can be manuaal for a wave sequencing synthesis. The VFX contains a set of 17 transwaves that can be used for wave sequencing. Here is the transwave list: DRUM-SOUND MULTI-DRUM gate-kick all-perc room-kick all-drums gate-snare vfx-wd rim-snare snar-drms close-hat hi-hats open-hat cymbals ride-cymb tom-toms dry-tom-l percusson dry-tom-h dry-toms gat-tom-l room-toms gat-tom-h gate-toms rm-tom-l congas rm-tom-h std-kit timbale gated-kit conga-lo room-kit conga-hi tamborine.

The VFX keyboard problems can be solved by the hardwired keyboard fix.

The Marketplace for Musicians |

When buying a used VFX you should know about this and be certain that the keyboard you buy has had this done. From the VFX mailing list:.

Under mwnual keyboard proper, there are 3 circuit boards that control the poly-key tm pressure. The first problem they thought was the solder flux thing which would be on board 1. They then thought it was the cable that goes from board 1 to the motherboard.

There is a connector that connects board 2 to board 3. Over time and use, the keyboard begins to sag a little bit and this connector eventually starts to corrode get dirtycome loose and the like. Ensoniq has determined that hard-wiring that connection solves the problem. Someone had the problem that the display would come up, and then only partially draw the “initializing” message, and then hang. They were ensonia by Ensoniq to power-cycle seven times, always turning off the machine at a particular point in the power-up sequence.

This is one of those manuals that was impossible to find on the ‘net in digital form. See below for download link.

All user reviews for the Ensoniq VFX SD

WAV samples are available on freewavesamples. Follow the instructions below only if you know what you’re doing.

From the VFX mailing list: My VFX won’t initialize. Ensobiq do I do? Manual This is one of those manuals that was impossible to find on the ‘net in digital form.


See the JavaCC documentation for details. Also see the mini-tutorial on the JavaCC site for tips on writing lexer specifications from which JavaCC can generate. At the end of the tutorial, we will parse a SQL file and extract table specifications ( please note that this is for an illustrative purpose; complete. In this first edition of the new Cool Tools column, Oliver Enseling discusses JavaCC — the Java Compiler Compiler. JavaCC facilitates.

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Erik Lievaart Recently, I wanted to write my own parser for a hobby project. In my journey I did find, however, that there is a lack of a gentle introduction into JavaCC. The articles I found were very high level and theoretical, or they always solved the same problems basic arithmetic expressions.

I plan on writing a couple of articles that are very hands on, very practical. This first article will be a tutoial getting started guide aimed to get you up and running quickly. The next paragraph will describe from a theoretical perspective what JavaCC is and why one would want to use a parser generator.

In “Creating ttutorial workspace” I will show you how to get the hello world project up and running in a minute or so. Then I will discuss the demo project for JavaCC in depth. It is a good starting point for creating a parser. It is an open source parser generator. You can use it to create your own custom parser. A parser is a program which uses validates an input file tutoriwl a grammar. It reads a file in one format and if valid converts it to another format, usually executable code.

We typically create parsers when we are creating our own programming language. Sometimes we create them for templating languages or for tokenizing raw text. Creating parsers by hand is error prone and parser generators offer a higher level syntax to aid process.

For simple text manipulation one would use String manipulation libraries, for moderately complex problems regex is enough. Using JavaCC for such problems is overkill and will cause mor e problems than is solves. When things get complex, however, having a parser generator at your disposal is a life saver. One of the features of JavaCC that I really like, is that the generated parser has no dependency on javacc.

Anybody has some links to javacc tutorials? – Stack Overflow

In other words, javacc creates pure java source files that can run without any external dependencies. Antlr in comparison requires the antlr jar to be javacd at run time.

My focus here is practical, so this is the only theory on the matter I will be discussing here. I am not going to discuss concepts such as LL 1 grammars or recursive descent parsing. I do recommend acquainting oneself with the theory behind parsing, when working with parser generators. Creating a workspace In this section we will create a basic JavaCC project in tutoriial few minutes, so you can start learning quickly.

Create a new java project in an eclipse workspace. You can delete the src folder created by Eclipse, we will use our own source folders.

Create a folder in the root of the workspace named demo. Download the following archive and unpack it in the demo folder: Refresh the root of the project so that eclipse sees the files.

Getting started in JavaCC

It should look something like this: And you’re good to go. Simply double click run-parser to run the parser or unit to run the unit tests. You probably want to compile turorial java sources in eclipse as well for tooling support. If all goes well, they will move to the root of the package explorer with a package symbol inside a folder. This adds junit to the build path and ensures the junit tests compile. Your project should look like this now: The files will not compile unless you run the javacc target and refresh the workspace.

This is because a the java files depend on the parser and it hasn’t been generated yet. JavaCC creates code that will give warnings in Eclipse. That is perfectly normal. There is a javacc plugin for Eclipse, but I’ve never tried it. In the next section, I will create a build file for compiling, running and testing the parser. Lastly, we will examine the source files and generated results. Javvacc is a picture of the folder structure in the sample project: In the root of the project you can see the ant build.

The demo uses two jar files found in the lib directory 1 javacc. They will automatically be picked up by the build file.

The sources are in a mavenlike folder structure, where main is used for application code and test for unit tests.

The boot package contains files with a main method, which will be invoked from the build file for running the demo. The demo package will be filled by JavaCC with the parser tutoial from the grammar file javacc. I have used a stop sign to indicate directories that should not be modified, because they are generated.

In the resource dir we see the grammar file javacc. It is empty for now, but you could specify manifest entries here if you wanted to. Lastly, the build directory will contain any artifacts generated by the build file.

The jar file will be created in the dist directory. Ant Build File build. Any java classes in the test directory whose names end with a capital ‘U’ are executed. There is a external target that creates a javacf file for the parser. This way, one can create the parser and attach it to another project as a separate jar file. I recommend this approach, because JavaCC generated code generates a lot of warnings.

These warnings might obfuscate problems in your own sources if not placed in a separate jar.

Lastly, I the options target dumps all configuration options for the javacc parser on the command line. These can be set on the command line or in the grammar file next section. Options set on the command line will override those in the grammar file. Note that when compiling with JavaCC, compilation is a 2-step process. First JavaCC creates the parser from the grammar file. The parser is generated as java source files.

Java source files need to be compiled before they can be executed, thus the second step. In the build file target javacc generates the parser, target compile-main compiles the parser, lastly compile-test compiles the unit tests.

These targets are called implicitly through dependencies where needed. Navacc JavaCC project has a grammar file which describes valid input. The grammar format defines the tokens used, the parser rules and can even be used to specify code that has to be executed while parsing. Let us take a look at the first 15 lines of the grammar file first: You can specify options at the start of the file, and as you can see, I set the static option to false.

You will see java code here, because the java code is copied to the java source file for the parser literally. Specify the name of the parser class to generate inside the parentheses.

The name you specify here is the name of the class you will be invoking from your application. tuhorial

Also, it is used as the base name for two other classes: I will discuss the generated classes in the next section, this section is focused solely on the grammar file. Note that when JavaCC creates the parser it is created in the directory you specify. JavaCC does not place the generated parser in a subdirectory matching the package declaration.

In other words, if you change the package here, you will need to modify the destination directory in the build file as well. If you forget to do this, the java compiler will complain that the declared package does not match the expected package. If the parser uses classes that require imports, then add them here.

We will see why I need those imports later. A minimal parser declaration would have no package declaration, no imports, no options configured, but it will normally contain at least the above. If you desire so, you can add a main method or other custom methods as well.

JavaCC™: LOOKAHEAD MiniTutorial

The next section of the grammar file is used for lexical analysis: Typically whitespaces and newline characters are skip characters. We don’t want the parser to fail when we encounter a new line, but we also don’t have any use for them in the parser. Skip characters will not be passed onto the parser unless they occur somewhere as part of a token. Note that the parser is still aware of the line number even when carriage returns are skipped. Next we define the token “NAME”, which consists of one or more letters lower or upper case.

This is the name we are going to use for our hello world application. Tokens and lexical analysis will be explored in the next installment of this series.

Finally, we add a single parser rule to our grammar file: A method with this name will be added to the created parser.


Alex mucchielli arta de a comunica online dating. Friendliness galore impugns the laundry to an image, caving the unpublished laundry intended to slack a man . Miller, G.R.; Knapp, Marl L. (ed.). A Handbook of Interpersonal Communication. New York: Sage Publications. Mucchielli, Alex. Arta de a comunica. – Download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online.

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Return to Book Page. Preview — Arta de a comunica by Alex Mucchielli. Arta de a comunica: Activitate umana fundamentala, comunicarea a fost studiata de-a lungul timpului de specialisti in diverse domenii.

Alex Mucchielli sintetizeaza rezultatele obtinute de psihologi in decursul unui secol de cercetari, pentru a oferi o perspectiva coerenta asupra psihologiei comunicarii. Centrindu-si analiza pe comunicarea interpersonala — de la comunicarea amicala sau in fami Activitate umana fundamentala, comunicarea a fost studiata de-a lungul timpului de specialisti in diverse domenii. Centrindu-si analiza pe comunicarea interpersonala — de la comunicarea amicala sau in familie pina la dialogul psihoterapeutic, interviu si negociere —, cunoscutul profesor arfa principalele forme ale acesteia, precum si paradigmele care functioneaza in cadrul disciplinei.

Mucchielli propune de dw noi concepte relative la comunicarea implicita, comunicarea defensiva si comunicarea proiectiva si arata cum comunicarea poate fi folosita pentru a-i influenta pe ceilalti. Published February by Polirom first published March To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.

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R. Presidente Antônio Carlos Carmo da Cachoeira | MG | Brazil. Cep: Attendance from Monday to Friday from 8 a.m. through 6 p.m. Network-of-Light of Brasilia exhibits books by Trigueirinho at Zen Fair Public talk by Trigueirinho “We and the Mystery of the Water” August 28 -8 p.m. (Brasilia . Além dos livros, Trigueirinho compartilha sua mensagem em palestras semanais que vêm sendo gravadas ao vivo, organizadas em séries e publicadas pela.

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This study tirgueirinho the knowledge of fishermen from three municipal areas of Bahia in northeast Brazil regarding the behavior repertoire of sharks and the possible influence that these perceptions may have on the inclination to preserve these animals. This is a pioneering study on the ethnobiological aspects of elasmobranchs in Brazil. Open, semi-structured interviews with shark fishing specialists were conducted between September and October The data were analysed with quantitative approach and conducted with the use of descriptive statistical techniques.

Sixty-five fishermen were interviewed. Because they identify sharks as predators, the detailed recognition of the behaviours exhibited is crucial both for an efficient catch and to avoid accidents. Therefore, this knowledge is doubly adaptive as it contributes to safer, more lucrative fishing.

Energia do poder | Trigueirinho

The Elasmobranchii subclass comprises cartilaginous fish, with species of sharks described [ 1 ]. Due to their numerous adaptive specializations developed over million years [ 2 ], sharks stand out as one of the main predators at the top of the food chain in marine environments [ 3 ].

As a consequence, they make an extraordinary contribution to the balance of marine ecosystems [ 45 ], both by controlling the prey population or by exerting evolutionary pressure as they consume old and sick animals [ 6 ].

Global initiatives to conserve elasmobranchs are still modest and not very effective when trigudirinho to the degree of threat to which the populations of these animals are exposed [ 7 ]. On a global scale, fishing stands as the primary threat to sharks, which are caught at an annual rate of between 63 and million individuals [ 8 ]. Eighty-eight shark species [ 11 ] have been recorded in the Brazilian coast, of which 12 are threatened with extinction and eight are overexploited or threatened with overexploitation.

In spite of being one of the primary sharks biodiversity hotspots in the world [ 12 ], historically Brazil has never implemented public policies for the conservation of this group, and this has culminated in fisheries being driven to the point of collapse without any protective measures being taken [ 13 ].

However, the decrease in abundance of shark populations resulting from overexploitation causes negative social impacts on fishing communities in Northeast Brazil, as shark meat has been for centuries an important source of protein for these populations [ 14 ]. Studies for the conservation of fishing resources are generally based on the biological assessment of stocks.

The quantitative methods used for these researches have been developed for application in temperate regions, where industrial fishing exploits a small number of abundant species with long historical series of information available [ 15 ].

Contrary to this, artisanal fishing in tropical countries is frequently much more complex: Therefore Sparre and Venema [ 15 ], highlight that the methods used to assess artisanal fishing stocks must be adequate to situations in which data are limited, and so the use of many sources of quantitative and qualitative information should be maximized, together with the traditional knowledge of fishermen.

The feasibility of preserving trigheirinho resources in Brazil is connected with the trgiueirinho to consolidate a fishing management and study model that takes into consideration both fishing characteristics and human needs [ 17 ]. It is clear that Brazilian institutions concerned with research and management of natural environments are faced with the challenge of proposing new conservation alternatives based on an ethnoconservationist model that benefits the maintenance of natural biodiversity and cultural diversity [ 18 ].

Marine ethnobiology focuses on studies about the relationships between human societies and the marine Biota of oceanic ecosystems [ 19 ]. Native human populations in coastal areas present a wide gamut of knowledge and adaptations qualifying them to survive in trigueirihno environments [ 2021 ].

It is necessary to study and understand in detail such adaptations and incorporate it livtos strategies for the coastal areas management, contributing to protect 2.

To accomplish this incorporation, one possibility is to combine the knowledge of both the policy makers and the natural resources users, such as the fishing communities [ 23 ]. According to Johannes, Freeman and Hamilton [ 24 ], fishermen can provide scientists with trigueirijho information about the distribution, diet, reproduction, behaviour, abundance and indications of fish overexploitation.

This study aims to analyse the fishermen knowledge regarding shark behaviours, as well as their perception concerning the management and conservation of triguelrinho animals.

We believe we could contribute to a better understanding of the human-sharks interactions and, consequently, strengthen recent initiatives for the conservation of these animals in the country.

The state of Bahia, in the northeast Brazil, has 1, kilometres of coastal area, divided into 44 municipal areas containing at least fishing communities [ 26 ]. The southern coast of the triguierinho is home to some of the most extensive coral formations of the Southwest Atlantic Ocean, the Abrolhos Livors.

This fact contributes to the rich diversity of fish species in the Brazilian coast, with more than recorded species [ 27 ]. The Abrolhos Bank is located at about kilometres far from the study area and encompasses coral reefs, volcanic islands, shallow banks and channels, covering an area of approximately 6, square kilometres.

It is an extension of the eastern Brazilian continental shelf, and is quite shallow where the reefs are located [ 28 ], less than 30 meters. In this region, fishing in the reef zones of the continental shelf is an age-old activity of high cultural and economic relevance [ 29 ], in spite of being little known or documented [ 30 ]. Map of the study area, highlighting livrox communities where the interviews were conducted.

It is a federal MPA that includes the territories of the municipalities of Una, Canavieiras and Belmonte and has a total area of livroe, The CER is part of the marine and coastal biomes and was implemented on 05 June [ 32 ]. It has an active Executive Board whose members work to approve a management plan and the hiring of a Civil Society Organization of Public Interest OSCIPa public interest non-governmental organization, to co-manage it [ 33 ].

The CER has had a fishing agreement in force sinceestablishing rules livroz the sustainable use of fishing resources. However, this document does not include livrow of use for elasmobranchs. A form was prepared for this purpose, containing general questions regarding fishing in the region and specific aspects involving trgiueirinho fishing knowledge, such as fishing fleet, the fishing gear involved, fish behaviour repertoire, and the subjective feelings of fishermen arising from their perceptions about different behaviours.

All interviews were recorded with a digital recorder. We used the method of checklist interview [ 36 ] in trigueidinho to make the taxonomic correspondence between the trigueirinhho used in the Linnean systematics and those cited by our informers for the shark species caught in the study area.

For doing that, interviews were conducted through visual stimulation with a set of 30 printed pictures of different species of shark that inhabit Bahia seashore, using two of them for study control [ 303738 ]. Some of the photos used were downloaded from the site Fishbase [ 39 ] and others from sites with stock images for scientific purposes.

To record fishermen ichthyological knowledge, we used the model of integrating various individual competencies [Hays apud [ 40 ], in which all information supplied are taken into account.

The quantitative approach was conducted with the use of descriptive statistical triigueirinho. The controls consisted of tests to verify the consistency and validity of the answers, resorting to repeated interviews in synchronous situations, when the same question was asked to different persons with a short time interval between them [ 40 ].

When the same information was repeated by the majority of informers, these were taken as memes [ 41 ], which are the shortest verifiable pieces of cultural information, like ttigueirinho entities that can be passed on within a certain population by way of speaking [ 42 ].

The adoption of a relatively small amount of citations is due to the extensive phenotypic similarity among the species of sharks caught by Bahia fishermen and the highly diverse popular names they use to classify these animals [ 43 ]. Seventy-one male shark fishing specialists were identified; however, five declined to take part in the study and one was not found. Eight of the interviewed fishermen are retired. This initiation resulted in school evasion, which in turn can explain the high level of illiteracy We found that a large majority All vessels involved in triguwirinho fishing are lirvos to catch fish, and Their typological profile is as follows: The primary construction material is wood, present in Even today, the construction of rafts remains as described by Forman [ 45 ].

In relation to the propulsion system utilized, In relation to fishery areas, a high amplitude was registered in the bathymetry with the depth ranging between 3 and meters, and in the ljvros from the tribueirinho ranging from 0. Concerning the technological instrumentation, trigieirinho observed that On the other hand, there are compasses in According to the notion of time perceived by the fishermen, there are two seasons: Other studies about Bahia artisanal fishermen have shown a perception of seasonal models similar to those observed in trigueitinho present study [ 414647 ].

The fishermen who participated in the study, separated fish in three different ethnocategories, according to the temporal succession of ethnospecies throughout the year. Among shark fishing specialists, we recorded the use of four different types of fishing gear: However, this gear is not the only that catch sharks in South Bahia, because sharks are also hrigueirinho caught in shrimp trawl nets, cast nets, beach seine nets and fishing rods, both along the coast and offshore.

Trigueirijho, the fishermen involved with these types of captures are not specialists in shark fishing. There are three types of hand line: In fact, the hand line figures the major gear in Bahia and is responsible for a significant part of fish production in the state [ 49 ], as it enables the redirection of fishing effort throughout the year, optimizing the exploitation of the species diversity.

Gillnet are used in The length of the nets ranges from 50 to meters meters, on average. The height of the nets varies from 2 to 7 meters. Tgigueirinho nets may be used on the water surface or near the substratum, and usually are checked by the fishermen once or twice per day to verify if any fish was caught. Six informers reported having recovered lost nets, indicating that these nets are harmful as the fish trugueirinho the get tangled in the equipment attracting other animals, including sharks which come to the net to eat opportunistically.

In the study area there are two variations of longlines: The informers say that in the first case the capture of sharks is less likely, since the hooks are often tied directly to nylon lines. The bottom longline makes feasible the capture of sharks because the hooks are tied to stainless steel cable straps. Regardless the type, the length of the longline may vary from two to six nautical miles and each of the fishing net contains 50 to 1, hooks.

Respondents informed that the longlines are put on water early in the morning and are collected late in the afternoon. They often complain about foreign boats from other regions of Brazil with large trawl nets exterminate the local fish resources and harm the regional economy.

“Shark is the man!”: ethnoknowledge of Brazil’s South Bahia fishermen regarding shark behaviors

They are composed of a thick cotton rope, and in one end have an iron anchor weighing kilograms, and in the other end a 2-meter-long steel cable is fixed to a stainless steel hook measuring 20 centimetres and weighing one kilogram. There are fishermen in the region using this type of opportunistically fishing to complement the fishing of bony fish.

This type of fishing, despite having always occurred in the region, has increased sincemotivated by the high prices of shark fins that according Fong and Anderson [ 51 ] are one of the most expensive animal products in the international market.

It is fundamental that fishermen recognize the ethological repertoire of fish species caught, as information of this nature is essential for fishing success [ 3544 ]. In this sense, Cordell [ 52 ] states that fishing is not a matter of luck but an understanding of the pattern behaviour of targeted species.

Regionally, in regard to sharks, this understanding is necessary not only for a more efficient catch, but especially as a way to avoid accidents due to the force, speed and violence with which these animals react when they feel imprisoned by the fishing gear. Therefore, it is possible to say that knowledge involving the ethological repertoire of sharks has a doubly adaptive character because tdigueirinho contributes towards more profitable, safer fishing.

In this sense, it is known that the fishermen from the community called Gamboa in Rio de Janeiro Brazil have a more accurate perception of the behaviour of sharks, since their interaction with these fish represents a greater risk of accidents [ 53 ]. In fact, sharks have long provoked terror in human beings due to the ferocity and morbidity of some species [ livdos ]. Fishermen regard sharks as livrso unique characteristics in relation to other captured fish. A curious habit worth noting can be easily identified in trigueirrinho discourse of informers: With regard to the repertoire of shark behaviours, local fishermen understand that a variety of factors, whether natural e.

“Shark is the man!”: ethnoknowledge of Brazil’s South Bahia fishermen regarding shark behaviors

Feeding behaviours are distributed among ten ethological ethnocategories. The most relevant aspect of shark interspecific relations involves their feeding habits [ 60 ].

Unfortunately, due to the inherent difficult of studying elasmobranchs in their natural environment, their predatory behaviours are little known by science, especially when compared with those of finfish [ 61 ]. Local fishermen usually refer to sharks as predators, with the majority This meme indicates that sharks are recognized by fishermen as top predators in marine food trigueiribho, although in a peculiar manner.

When questioned regarding tigueirinho sharks are important elements of marine environments,


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JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. The test method requires a 0. Solvent and solution flow times are measured at 30 deg.

C using the same 1B size of suspended-level Ubbelohde type viscometer for both measurements. The method requires that three successive flow times are obtained within 0. The RPV-2 software automatically calculates the Intrinsic Viscosity from each single determination using the Billmeyer equation.

Dissolution is d6403 out using a reaction block with stirring and heating at deg. C with a programmable timer. Using these integrated options ensures full integrity of data from end to end in the measurement process.

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