The versatile Knorr pyrrole synthesis is an important route to pyrroles it involves the condensation of a β-keto ester with an α-amino ketone An important pyrrole synthesis, known as the Knorr synthesis, is of the cyclizative condensation type. An α-amino ketone furnishes a nucleophilic nitrogen and. Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis. Schematic representation of the Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis. Mechanism of the Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis. Mechanism of the Knorr Pyrrole.

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Amarnath tried to stabilize or destabilize the immonium ion with different aryl groups as substituents:.

Knorr pyrrole synthesis – Wikipedia

The methoxy group has a negative effect on the cyclization rate in each case. Chemische Berichte in German. Levi and Zanetti extended the Pyrole synthesis in to the use of acetylacetone 2,4-pentanedione in reaction with ethyl 2-oximinoacetoacetate.

The two ester positions can be more smoothly differentiated by incorporating benzyl or tert -butyl groups via the corresponding acetoacetate esters. Ley, Synlett, Saidi, Synlett, The Knorr pyrrole synthesis is a widely used chemical reaction that synthesizes substituted pyrroles 3. Dissolving Knorr’s pyrrole in concentrated sulfuric acidand then pouring the resulting solution into water snthesis hydrolyze the 4-ester group selectively.

Knorr’s pyrrole can be derivatized in a number of useful manners. An important product of the Fischer-Fink synthesis was ethyl 4,5-dimethylpyrrolecarboxylate, made from ethyl 2-oximinoacetoacetate and 2-methyloxobutanal, in pyrrolf made by the Claisen condensation of 2-butanone with ethyl formate. The mechanism requires zinc and acetic acid as catalysts.


The Journal of Organic Chemistry. La Gazzetta Chimica Italiana in Italian. Magnesium Nitride as a Convenient Source of Ammonia: Modern practice is pytrole add the oxime solution resulting from the nitrosation and the zinc dust gradually to a well-stirred solution of ethyl acetoacetate in glacial acetic acid.

Knorr pyrrole synthesis

Views Read Edit View history. Ethyl and benzyl esters are easily synthfsis thereby, and the reaction is noteworthy in that even the highly hindered tert -butyl alcohol gives very high yields in this synthesis.

Any mechanism such as the following one that involves the formation of an enamine before the rate-determining step – syntuesis cyclization – must be ruled out. However, when unsymmetrical diketones were used, it was found that the acetyl group from the acetoacetamide was retained in the product, and one of the acyl groups from the diketone had been lost.

Even pytrole have been successfully prepared, using the method. Scheeren, Tetrahedron, 60 The nitro group has in every situation had a positive effect on the reaction rate.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The reaction is exothermicand the mixture can reach the boiling point, if external cooling is not kknorr. The use of ammonia should give an uncharged intermediate and is therefore less affected by the choice of substitutents. In Elderfield, Robert Cooley. Site Search any all words Main Categories.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The imine then tautomerizes to an enamine, followed by cyclization, elimination of water, and isomerization to the pyrrole. Similarly, 3-ketobutyraldehyde diethyl acetal led to the formation of ethyl 5-methylpyrrolecarboxylate.

Journal of the American Chemical Society. Benzyl groups can be removed by catalytic hydrogenolysis over palladium on carbonand tertiary-butyl groups can be removed by treatment with trifluoroacetic acidor boiling aqueous acetic acid. Retrieved from ” https: One equivalent of sodium hydroxide will saponify the 2-ester selectively. A mechanism that accounts for the influence of different substitution patterns mesodl and explains the influence of a p -nitrophenyl group making a nucleophile more reactive although not as the imine includes the cyclization of a hemiacetal which is followed by different dehydration steps:.

This reduction consumes two equivalents of zinc and four equivalents of acetic acid. The original Knorr synthesis employed two equivalents of ethyl acetoacetateone of which was converted to ethyl 2-oximinoacetoacetate by dissolving it in glacial acetic acidand slowly adding one equivalent of saturated aqueous sodium nitriteunder external cooling. If the ring is formed from an imine that is generated from a primary amine, a charged immonium ion must be an intermediate.